Skip to main content


Any process can communicate with any other process by sending an RPC. Starting in version 1.8, the Rpc attribute encompasses Server to Client Rpcs, Client to Server Rpcs, and Client to Client Rpcs.

Declaring an RPC (Remote Procedure Call)

You can declare an RPC by marking a method with the [Rpc] attribute and including the Rpc suffix in the method name. RPCs have a number of possible targets that can be declared at both runtime and compile time, but a default must be passed to the [Rpc] attribute. For example, to create an RPC that will be executed on the server, you would declare it like this:

public void PingRpc(int pingCount) { /* ... */ }

void PongRpc(int pingCount, string message) { /* ... */ }

Compile-time Targets

There are several default, compile-time targets you can choose from:

SendTo.ServerSend to the server, regardless of ownership. Will execute locally if invoked on the server.
SendTo.NotServerSend to everyone but the server, filtered to the current observer list. Will not send to a server running in host mode - it is still treated as a server. If you want to send to servers when they are host, but not when they are dedicated server, use SendTo.ClientsAndHost.

Will execute locally if invoked on a client. Will not execute locally if invoked on a server running in host mode.
SendTo.OwnerSend to the NetworkObject's current owner. Will execute locally if the local process is the owner.
SendTo.NotOwnerSend to everyone but the current owner, filtered to the current observer list. Will execute locally if the local process is not the owner.

In host mode, the host will receive this message twice: once on the host client, once on the host server.
SendTo.MeExecute this RPC locally.

Normally this is no different from a standard function call.

Using the DeferLocal parameter of the attribute or the LocalDeferMode override in RpcSendParams, this can allow an RPC to be process on localhost with a one-frame delay as if it were sent over the network.
SendTo.NotMeSend this RPC to everyone but the local machine, filtered to the current observer list.
SendTo.EveryoneSend this RPC to everyone, filtered to the current observer list. Will execute locally.
SendTo.ClientsAndHostSend this RPC to all clients, including the host, if a host exists. If the server is running in host mode, this is the same as SendTo.Everyone. If the server is running in dedicated server mode, this is the same as SendTo.NotServer.
SendTo.SpecifiedInParamsThis RPC cannot be sent without passing in a target in RpcSendParams

While client-to-client RPCs are supported, it is important to note that there are no direct connections between clients. When sending a client-to-client RPC, the RPC is sent to the server, that acts as a proxy, and forwards the same RPC message to all destination clients. If the targeted destination clients includes the local client, the local client will still execute the RPC immediately (or if deferred it is invoked on the next frame locally).

Invoking an RPC

You can invoke an RPC by invoking the function directly with parameters:

public void PingRpc(int pingCount)
// Server -> Clients because PongRpc sends to NotServer
// Note: This will send to all clients.
// Sending to the specific client that requested the pong will be discussed in the next section.
PongRpc(pingCount, "PONG!");

void PongRpc(int pingCount, string message)
Debug.Log($"Received pong from server for ping {pingCount} and message {message}");

void Update()
if (IsClient && Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.P))
// Client -> Server because PingRpc sends to Server

You must mark client RPC methods with the [Rpc] attribute and use the Rpc method suffix; failing to do so results in an error message.

// Error: Invalid, missing 'Rpc' suffix in the method name
void Pong(int somenumber, string sometext) { /* ... */ }

The [Rpc] attribute and matching ...Rpc suffix in the method name help to assure context clarity in scripts that invoke them and are used by Netcode during the ILPostProcessor pass. The ILPostProcessor pass replaces all call-site locations where the RPC method is invoked, with additional code generated specific to the RPC to assure that the RPC message is generated and sent to the appropriate destinations/targets as opposed to just locally invoking the method.

Pong(somenumber, sometext); // Is this a local function or a remote function?

PongRpc(somenumber, sometext); // This is clearly an remote function

Runtime Targets

By default, most targets are hard-coded at compile time: Owner always sends to Owner, Server always sends to Server, and so on. There are two cases where you are allowed to specify a different set of targets at runtime:

  • If the target is SendTo.SpecifiedInParams, you MUST pass a target in at runtime in order to send the RPC.
  • If the Rpc parameter is declared with AllowTargetOverride = true, then you MAY pass a target in at runtime in order to send the RPC to a different target than the compile-time default.

To send to a different target, you must define an additional parameter of type RpcParameters as the last parameter in your RPC method, and then pass your runtime targets in with that parameter. This gets special handling in the ILPostProcessor pass - this last parameter will not be serialized and sent across the network; instead, it will be read on the sending side to check for overrides to its default sending behavior using the RpcParameters.Send field (while RpcParameters.Receive will be ignored), and on the receiving side, it will be populated with RpcParameters.Receive to provide information about the receiving context (while RpcParameters.Send will be left uninitialized).

RpcParameters can be implicitly constructed from runtime send targets, making it simple to pass these targets in as parameters.

Built-In Targets

NetworkManager and NetworkBehaviour both provide reference to an field called RpcTarget, which provides references to the various override targets you can pass in. The list mirrors the list of targets provided in the SendTo enum, and each provides the exact same behavior as what is indicated in the table above.

The RpcTarget object is shared by all NetworkBehaviours attached to a given NetworkManager, so you can get access to this via any NetworkBehaviour or via the NetworkManager object itself.

public class SomeNetworkBehaviour : NetworkBehaviour
[Rpc(SendTo.Server, AllowTargetOverride = true)]
public void SomeRpc(int serializedParameter1, float serializedParameter2, RpcParams rpcParams)


// Sends SomeRpc() to the owner instead of the server
public void SendSomeRpcToOwner(int param1, float param2)
SomeRpc(param1, param2, RpcTarget.Owner);

public class SomeOtherClass
public SomeNetworkBehaviour Behaviour;

public SendSomeRpcToOwnerOnBehaviour(int param1, float param2)
// Since this method is not within a NetworkBehaviour, RpcTarget.Owner must be accessed through
// the Behaviour object via Behaviour.RpcTarget.Owner.
Behaviour.SomeRpc(param1, param2, Behaviour.RpcTarget.Owner);

Custom Targets

If you need to send to a specific client ID or list of client IDs that are not covered by any of the existing named targets, you can use the following methods:

// Send to a specific single client ID.
public BaseRpcTarget Single(ulong clientId, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }

// Send to everyone EXCEPT a specific single client ID.
public BaseRpcTarget Not(ulong excludedClientId, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }

// Sends to a group of client IDs.
public BaseRpcTarget Group(NativeArray<ulong> clientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Group(NativeList<ulong> clientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Group(ulong[] clientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Group<T>(T clientIds, RpcTargetUse use) where T : IEnumerable<ulong>
{ /* ... */ }

// Sends to everyone EXCEPT a group of client IDs.
public BaseRpcTarget Not(NativeArray<ulong> excludedClientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Not(NativeList<ulong> excludedClientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Not(ulong[] excludedClientIds, RpcTargetUse use) { /* ... */ }
public BaseRpcTarget Not<T>(T excludedClientIds, RpcTargetUse use) where T : IEnumerable<ulong>
{ /* ... */ }

You will note that each of these includes an RpcTargetUse parameter; this parameter controls the use of a particular performance optimization in situations where it can be used. Because BaseRpcTarget is a managed type, allocating a new one is expensive, as it puts pressure on the garbage collector.

If you are only creating the BaseRpcTarget instance for one-time use in order to pass it to an RPC and then discard it, RpcTargetUse.Temp can be used to avoid these allocations. It does this by making use of a persistent cached BaseRpcTarget object that it populates with new data. The downside of this is that, the next time you call any of these methods, that data may be overwritten - so if you are creating a target that you plan to use for a longer duration of time, RpcTargetUse.Persistent will tell the code to allocate a new one for you that it will never overwrite.

In general, in cases where you are using RpcTargetUse.Temp with the group functions, it is recommended to also use the NativeArray or NativeList versions. NativeArray and NativeList can be allocated with Allocator.Temp very efficiently with no pressure on the garbage collector; on the other hand, the ulong[] and IEnumerable<ulong> will add garbage collection pressure (even if the IEnumerable<ulong> version is invoked using a struct type, it will still cause a boxing allocation), so it's recommended to avoid using those frequently.

Completing the ping example

As noted in the comments above, the earlier ping/pong example will send its pong to all connected clients instead of just the one that requested it. To complete this example, we can use RpcParameters along with SendTo.SpecifiedInParams to make the example work as you might expect a ping to work:

public void PingRpc(int pingCount, RpcParams rpcParams)
// Here we use RpcParams for incoming purposes - fetching the sender ID the RPC came from
// That sender ID can be passed in to the PongRpc to send this back to that client and ONLY that client

PongRpc(pingCount, "PONG!", RpcTarget.Single(rpcParams.Receive.SenderClientId, RpcTargetUse.Temp));

void PongRpc(int pingCount, string message, RpcParams rpcParams)
// We do not use rpcParams within this method's body, but that is okay!
// The params passed in are used by the generated code to ensure that this sends only
// to the one client it should go to

Debug.Log($"Received pong from server for ping {pingCount} and message {message}");

void Update()
if (IsClient && Input.GetKeyDown(KeyCode.P))

Other RPC parameters

There are a few other parameters that can be passed to either the Rpc attribute at compile-time or the RpcSendParams object at runtime.

RpcAttribute parameters

DeliveryControls whether the delivery is reliable (default) or unreliable.

Options: RpcDelivery.Reliable or RpcDelivery.Unreliable.
Default: RpcDelivery.Reliable
RequireOwnershipIf true, this RPC will throw an exception if invoked by a player that does not own the object. This is in effect for server-to-client, client-to-server, and client-to-client RPCs - i.e., a server-to-client RPC will still fail if the server is not the object's owner.

Default: false
DeferLocalIf true, RPCs that execute locally will be deferred until the start of the next frame, as if they had been sent over the network. (They will not actually be sent over the network, but will be treated as if they were.) This is useful for mutually recursive RPCs on hosts, where sending back and forth between the server and the "host client" will cause a stack overflow if each RPC is executed instantly; simulating the flow of RPCs between remote client and server enables this flow to work the same in both contexts.

Default: false
AllowTargetOverrideBy default, any SendTo value other than SendTo.SpecifiedInParams is a hard-coded value that cannot be changed. Setting this to true allows you to provide an alternate target at runtime, while using the SendTo value as a fallback if no runtime value is provided.

RpcSendParams parameters

TargetRuntime override destination for the RPC. (See above for more details.) Populating this value will throw an exception unless either the SendTo value for the RPC is SendTo.SpecifiedInParams, or AllowTargetOverride is true.

Default: null
LocalDeferModeOverrides the DeferLocal value. DeferLocalMode.Defer will cause this particular invocation of this RPC to be deferred until the next frame even if DeferLocal is false, while DeferLocalMode.SendImmediate will cause the RPC to be executed immediately on the local machine even if DeferLocal is true. DeferLocalMode.Default does whatever the DeferLocal value in the attribute is configured to do.

Options: DeferLocalMode.Default, DeferLocalMode.Defer, DeferLocalMode.SendImmediate
Default: DeferLocalMode.Default

Also see