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NetworkObject Parenting


If you aren't completely familiar with transform parenting in Unity, then it is highly recommended to review over the existing Unity documentation before reading further. In order to properly synchronize all connected clients with any change in a GameObject's transform parented status, Netcode for GameObjects (NGO) requires that the parent and child GameObjects have NetworkObject components attached to them.

Parenting Rules#

  • Setting the parent of a child's Transform directly (i.e. transform.parent = childTransform;) will always use the default WorldPositionStays value of true.
    • It is recommended to always use the NetworkObject.TrySetParent method when parenting if you plan on changing the WorldPositionStays default value.
    • Likewise, it is also recommended to use the NetworkObject.TryRemoveParent method to remove a parent from a child.
  • When a server parents a spawned NetworkObject under another spawned NetowrkObject during a netcode game session this parent child relationship is replicated across the network to all connected and future late joining clients.
  • If, while editing a scene, you place an in-scene placed NetworkObject under a GameObject that does not have a NetworkObject component attached to it, NGO will preserve that parenting relationship.
    • During runtime, this parent-child hierarchy will remain true unless user code removes the GameObject parent from the child NetworkObject.
      • Note: Once removed, NGO will not allow you to re-parent the NetworkObject back under the same or another GameObject that with no NetworkObject component attached to it.
  • You can perform the same parenting actions with in-scene placed NetworkObjects as you can with dynamically spawned NetworkObjects.
    • Only in-scene placed NetworkObjects can have multiple generations of nested NetworkObject children.
    • You can parent dynamically spawned NetworkObjects under in-scene placed NetworkObjects and vice versa.
  • To adjust a child's transform values when parenting or when removing a parent:
    • Override the NetworkBehaviour.OnNetworkObjectParentChanged virtual method within a NetworkBehaviour attached to the child NetworkObject.
    • When OnNetworkObjectParentChanged is invoked, on the server side, adjust the child's transform values within the overridden method.
    • NGO will then synchronize all clients with the child's parenting and transform changes.

When a NetworkObject is parented, NGO will synchronize both the parenting information along with the child's transform values. NGO uses the WorldPositionStays setting to determine whether to synchronize the local or world space transform values of the child NetworkObject. This means that a NetworkObject does not require you to include a NetworkTransform component if it never moves around, rotates, or changes its scale when it is not parented. This can be useful for world items a player might pickup (i.e. parent the item under the player) and the item in question needs to be adjusted relative to the player when it is parented or the parent is removed (i.e. dropped). This helps to reduce the item's over-all bandwidth and processing resources consumption.


NetworkBehaviour.OnNetworkObjectParentChanged is a virtual method you can override to be notified when a NetworkObject's parent has changed. The MonoBehaviour.OnTransformParentChanged() method is used by NetworkObject to catch transform.parent changes and notify its associated NetworkBehaviours.

/// <summary>
/// Gets called when the parent NetworkObject of this NetworkBehaviour's NetworkObject has changed
/// </summary>
virtual void OnNetworkObjectParentChanged(NetworkObject parentNetworkObject) { }
Multi-Generation Children and Scale

If you are dealing with more than one generation of nested children where each parent and child have scale values other than, then mixing the WorldPositionStays value when parenting and removing a parent will impact how the final scale is calculated! If you want to maintain the same values prior to parenting when removing a parent from a child, then you need to use the same WorldPositionStays value used when the child was parented.

Only A Server (or A Host) Can Parent NetworkObjects#

Similar to Ownership, only the server (or host) can control NetworkObject parenting.


If you run into a situation where your client must trigger parenting a NetworkObject, one solution is for the client to send an RPC to the server. Upon receiving the RPC message, the server then handles parenting the NetworkObject.

Only Parent Under A NetworkObject Or Nothing (i.e. The Root or null)#

You can only parent a NetworkObject under another NetworkObject. The only exception is if you don't want the NetworkObject to have a parent. In this case, you would can remove the NetworkObject's parent by invoking NetworkObject.TryRemoveParent. If this operation succeeds, the the parent of the child will be set to null (root of the scene hierarchy).

Only Spawned NetworkObjects Can Be Parented#

A NetworkObject can only be parented if it is spawned and can only be parented under another spawned NetworkObject. This also means that NetworkObject parenting can only occur during a network session (netcode enabled game session). Think of NetworkObject parenting as a netcode event. In order for it to happen, you must have, at very minimum, a server or host instance started and listening.

Invalid Parenting Actions Are Reverted#

If an invalid/unsupported NetworkObject parenting action occurs, the attempted parenting action will be reverted back to the NetworkObject's original parenting state.

For example: If you had a NetworkObject who's current parent was root and tried to parent it in an invalid way (i.e. under a GameObject without a NetworkObject component) then a warning message would be logged and the NetworkObject would revert back to having root as its parent.

In-scene Object Parenting and Player Objects#

If you plan on parenting in-scene placed NetworkObjects with a player NetworkObject when it is initially spawned, you need to wait until the client has finished synchronizing with the server first. Since parenting can only be performed on the server side, you should perform the parenting action only when the server has received the NetworkSceneManager generated SceneEventType.SynchronizeComplete message from the client that owns the player NetworkObject to be parented (as a child or parent).

WorldPositionStays usage#

When using the NetworkObject.TrySetParent or NetworkObject.TryRemoveParent methods, the WorldPositionStays parameter is synchronized with currently connected and late joining clients. When removing a child from its parent, you should use the same WorldPositionStays value that was used to parent the child. More specifically when WorldPositionStays is set to false this applies, but if you are using the defalt value of true then this is not required (because it is the default).

When the WorldPositionStays parameter in NetworkObject.TrySetParent is the default value of true, this will preserve the world space values of the child NetworkObject relative to the parent. However, sometimes you might want to only preserve the local space values (i.e. pick up an object that only has some initial changes to the child's transform when parented). Through a combination of NetworkObject.TrySetParent and NetworkBehaviour.OnNetworkObjectParentChanged you can accomplish this without the need for a NetworkTransform. To better understand how this works, it is important to understand the order of operations for both of these two methods:


  • NetworkObject.TrySetParent invokes NetworkBehaviour.OnNetworkObjectParentChanged
    • You can make adjustments to the child's position, rotation, and scale in the overridden OnNetworkObjectParentChanged method.
  • The ParentSyncMessage is generated, the transform values are added to the message, and the message is then sent.
    • ParentSyncMessage includes the child's position, rotation, and scale
      • Currently connected or late joining clients will be synchronized with the parenting and the child's associated transform values

When to use a NetworkTransform
If you plan on the child NetowrkObject moving around, rotating, or scaling independently (when parented or not) then you will still want to use a NetworkTransform. If you only plan on making a one time adjustment to the child NetworkObject's transform when parented or having a parent removed, then the child does not need a NetworkTransform component.

Network Prefabs, Parenting, and NetworkTransforms#

Since the NetworkTransform component synchronizes the transform of a GameObject (with a NetworkObject component attached to it), it can become tricky to understand the parent-child transform relationship and how that translates when synchronizing late joining clients. Currently, a network prefab can only have one NetworkObject component within on the root GameObject of the prefab. However, you can have a complex hierarchy of GameObjects nested under the root GameObjet and each child GameObject can have a NetworkBehaviour attached to it. Since a NetworkTransform synchronizes the transform of the GameObject it is attached to, you might be tempted to setup a network prefab like this:

Network Prefab Root (GameObject with NetworkObject and NetworkTransform components attached to it)
├─ Child #1 (GameObject with NetworkTransform component attached to it)
└─ Child #2 (GameObject with NetworkTransform component attached to it)

While this will not give you any warnings and, depending upon the transform settings of Child #1 & #2, it might appear to work properly (i.e. synchronizes clients, etc.), it is important to understand how the child GameObject, with no NetworkObject component attached to it, and parent GameObject, that does have a NetworkObject component attached to it, will be synchronized when a client connects to an already in-progress network session (i.e. late joins or late joining client). If Child #1 or Child #2 have had changes to their respective GameObject's transform prior to a client joining, then upon a client late joining the two child GameObject's transforms will not get synchronized during the initial synchronization period because they do not have NetworkObject components attached to them:

Network Prefab Root (Late joining client is synchronized with `GameObject`'s current transform state)
├─ Child #1 (Late joining client *is not synchronized* with `GameObject`'s current transform state)
└─ Child #2 (Late joining client *is not synchronized* with `GameObject`'s current transform state)

This is important to understand because the NetworkTransform component initializes itself, during NetworkTransform.OnNetworkSpawn, with the GameObject's current transform state. Just below, in the parenting examples, we provide you with some valid and invalid parenting rules. As such, you should take these rules into consideration when using NetworkTransform components if you plan on using a complex parent-child hierarchy and should make sure to organize your project's assets where any children that have NetworkTransform components attached to them also have NetworkObject components attached to them to avoid late-joining client synchronization issues.

Parenting Examples#

Simple Example:#

Let's assume we have the following initial scene hierarchy before we attempt parenting:

Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)

Both the player and vehicle NetworkObjects are spawned and the player moves towards the vehicle and wants to "get into" the vehicle. The player's client sends perhaps a "use object" RPC command to the server. In turn, the server then parents the player under the vehicle and changes the player's model pose to sitting. Since both NetworkObjects are spawned and the server is receiving an RPC to perform the parenting action, the parenting action performed by the server is considered valid and the player is then parented under the vehicle as it is shown below:

Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
└─ Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)

Mildly Complex Invalid Example:#

Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
├─ Seat1 (GameObject)
└─ Seat2 (GameObject)

In the above example, the vehicle has two GameObjects nested under the vehicle's root GameObject to represent the two available seats. If we tried to parent the player under Seat1:

Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
├─Seat1 (GameObject)
│ └─Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
└─Seat2 (GameObject)

This would be considered an invalid parenting and would be reverted.

Mildly Complex Valid Example:#

In order to resolve the previous invalid parenting issue, we would need to add a NetworkObjet component to the seats. This means we would need to:

  1. Spawn the vehicle and the seats:
Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Seat1 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Seat2 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
  1. Once spawned, parent the seats under the vehicle
Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
├─ Seat1 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
└─ Seat2 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
  1. Finally, some time later a player wants to get into the vehicle and the player is parented under Seat1:
Vehicle (GameObject->NetworkObject)
├─Seat1 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
│ └─Player (GameObject->NetworkObject)
└─Seat2 (GameObject->NetworkObject)
Optional Auto Synchronized Parenting

The Auto Object Parent Sync property of NetworkObject, enabled by default, allows you to disable automatic parent change synchronization in the event you want to implement your own parenting solution for one or more NetworkObjects.